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Portuguese rule lasted for around 80 years, during which time they depended mainly on Sunni Persian governors.
During most of this period, they resorted to governing Bahrain indirectly, either through the city of Bushehr or through immigrant Sunni Arab clans.
Wrapped in a sack, it was thrown into the Great Mosque of Kufa in Iraq, accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we have brought it back." The theft and removal of the Black Stone caused it to break into seven pieces.
The Uyunids controlled Bahrain until 1235, when the archipelago was briefly occupied by the Persian ruler of Fars.
Muhammad's first interaction with the people of Bahrain was the Al Kudr Invasion.
By about 250 BC, Parthia brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman.
The Parthians established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf to control trade routes.
Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa, in medieval Bahrain, for ransom.
According to historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned 22 years later in 951 under mysterious circumstances.
The region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. The exact date at which the term "Bahrain" began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown.